What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus describes a group of metabolic diseases, in which the affected person has high blood glucose levels due to insufficient insulin production in the body. It is often a long term condition. There are three types of diabetes:

  1. Type 1 diabetes in which body ceases production of insulin.
  2. Type 2 diabetes in which body does not produce enough insulin for proper functioning.
  3. This type of diabetes is more common.
  4. Gestational Diabetes in which pregnant females are affected.


Common symptoms of a diabetic patient

In some cases of type 2 diabetes, the individual shows no symptoms at all which causes them to be unaware of the disease and leave it undiagnosed. High blood sugar levels have some classic symptoms like frequent urination and thirst, increased fatigue and hunger. Unusual weight gain or loss can also be associated with this disease.

Any one or more of the symptoms in an individual should be enough for them to get checked for diabetes.

Diagnosis

Before the tests are done, diagnosis may be conducted if the symptoms associated with diabetes occur. Diabetic tests include blood and urine tests. It is generally advised that anyone who is overweight and is of age 45 and over should test for diabetes.

Keeping Diabetes under control

Tight control of blood sugar levels is quite hard and demands attention to everyday aspects.

The overall knowledge of diabetes is crucial in the process of monitoring blood sugar levels.

The following three things should be kept under strict supervision:

 1. Insulin doses and proper treatment

Type 2 diabetes has a number of treatment options available as oral anti hyperglycemic drugs or oral hypoglycemic drugs. Although these drugs alone cannot control diabetes, diet and exercise remain an important part of the treatment along with the pills. Having insulin dependent diabetes means a lifelong, daily intake of insulin injections. Diabetic patients unresponsive to oral drugs must take insulin.

 2. Managing your diet

Diet is important in controlling diabetes. One should take low calorie diets as obesity is also know to contribute to diabetes. Diet should contain high amount of nutrients in order to maintain healthy weight.

Carbohydrate rich whole grain food is another source for low calorie and high nutrition.

Eating high fiber rich foods maintains your digestive system and allows you to each healthy amounts of food every day. Foods rich in cholesterol should be avoided as diabetic people already have unhealthy cholesterol levels in their body.

 3. Physical activity

Along with a proper diet, exercise is an important element in the management of blood sugar. Exercises are important because of two sole reasons; firstly, it helps with weight loss and it is good for heart health, thus preventing any complications in diabetic patients.

Most doctors recommend Aerobic exercises for patients with elevated blood sugar levels.

Exercises can also be in the form of outdoor activities like walking or gardening. The important thing for any diabetic patient is to stay fit.