What does vitamin a do?
For some people, water-soluble forms of vitamin A supplements appear to be better absorbed than fat-soluble vitamin A.
Where is vitamin a found?
Vitamin A has been used in connection with the following conditions
Who is likely to be deficient of vitamin a?
Less severe deficiencies are more likely to occur with a variety of conditions causing malabsorption. A high incidence of vitamin A deficiency in people infected with HIV has also been reported. People with hypothyroidism have an impaired ability to convert beta-carotene to vitamin A.2 3 For this reason, some doctors suggest taking supplemental vitamin A (perhaps 5,000–10,000 IU per day) if they are not consuming adequate amounts in their diet.
Very old people with type 2 diabetes have shown a significant age-related decline in blood levels of vitamin A, irrespective of their dietary intake.4
How much vitamin a is usually taken?
Are there any side effects or interactions with vitamin a?
Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A has been associated with birth defects in humans in fewer than 20 reported cases over the past 30 years.7 8 Presently, the level at which vitamin A supplementation may cause birth defects is not known, though combined human and animal data suggest that 30,000 IU per day should be considered safe.9 Women who are or who could become pregnant should consult with a doctor before supplementing with more than 10,000 IU per day.
Vitamin A supplements can both help and hurt children. Many people have heard that vitamin A supplements support immune function and prevent infections. This is true under some circumstances. However, vitamin A can also increase the risk of infections, according to the findings of a double-blind trial.10 In a study of African children between six months and five years old, a 44% reduction in the risk of severe diarrhea was seen in those children given four 100,000–200,000 IU applications of vitamin A (the lower amount for those less than a year old) during an eight-month period. On further investigation, the researchers discovered that the reduction in diarrhea occurred only in children who were very malnourished. For children who were not starving, vitamin A supplementation actually increased the risk of diarrhea compared with the placebo group. The vitamin A-supplemented children also had a 67% increased risk of coughing and rapid breathing, signs of further lung infection, although this problem did not appear in children infected with AIDS. These findings should be of concern to American parents, whose children are not usually infected with AIDS or severely malnourished. Such relatively healthy children fared poorly in the African trial in terms of both the risk of diarrhea and the risk of continued lung problems. Vitamin A provided no benefit to the well-nourished kids. Therefore, it makes sense to not give vitamin A supplements to children unless there is a special reason to do so, such as the presence of a condition causing malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease).
In a study of people with retinitis pigmentosa (a degenerative condition of the eye), participants received 15,000 IU of vitamin A per day for 12 years with no signs of adverse effects or toxicity.11 For other adults, intake above 25,000 IU (7,500 mcg) per day can—in rare cases—cause headaches, dry skin, hair loss, fatigue, bone problems, and liver damage.12 At higher levels (for example 100,000 IU per day) these problems become more common.
A controlled clinical trial showed that people who took 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day for a median of 3.8 years had an 11% increase in triglycerides, a 3% increase in total cholesterol and a 1% decrease in HDL cholesterol compared to those who did not take vitamin A.13 Although the significance of these findings is not clear, people at risk for cardiovascular disease should use caution when considering long-term vitamin A supplementation.
One study found that increasing the intake of vitamin A in the diet was associated with bone loss and risk of hip fracture, possibly due to a vitamin A-induced stimulation of cells that break down bone.14 In this study, a vitamin A intake greater than 5,000 IU per day, when compared to a lower intake, was associated with a reduction in bone mineral density that approximately doubles the risk of hip fracture. Beta-carotene (which can be used by the body to make vitamin A) has not been linked to reduced bone mass. Until more is known, people concerned about osteoporosis may consider taking beta-carotene supplements rather than supplementing with vitamin A.
Data from test tube, animal, and human studies show that excessive vitamin A intake can accelerate bone loss and inhibit formation of new bone, increasing the risk of osteoporosis.15 In humans, small studies have found these effects at about 85,000–125,000 IU per day. 16 17
Taking vitamin A and iron together helps overcome iron deficiency more effectively than iron supplementation alone.18 Supplementation with zinc, iron, or the combination has been found to improve vitamin A status among children at high risk for deficiency of the three nutrients.19
Are there any drug interactions?